Effortless Projection: Wide Back, Soft Front, Free Sound

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This past week, I decided to pull out Fiona Wilkinson's book, The Physical Flute: Creative Techniques for the Development of Tone, Vibrato, and Pitch Control for some fresh perspectives during my warm-up.

 

Reading through the first page, I was committed to approaching my physical self before making any sounds.


Finding Spring-Like Poise from the Ground Up

 

The first part is called, The Body - Alive and Well.

She provides thoughtful descriptions for taking a look at the body from the ground up to find areas that can be un-stuck and better aligned for a rich sound:

 

Here are the specific words that jumped out while I slowly processed:

 

Legs:

  • "Elastic Knee Joints" - Not Locked

  • "Feel the life in your legs."

Hips: 

  • "Lift your weight off your pelvis, elongate the sides of the torso."

Back:

  • "Draw your weight up from the floor creating a feeling of length and width in the back."

  • "Imagine as much space between the shoulder blades as you can while remaining relaxed."


Freeing the Torso for Effortless breathing

 

Whenever I digest thoughts like these on physical ease and balance, there's always a reminder in there that helps me re-discover ease in a new way each time. (And it never gets old!)

 

This time, it was the thought about lifting weight off the pelvis and life in the legs.

 

Freeing the hip joints:

 

Following the instructions from the ground up, I took a moment to balance at the knees, finding that place where the thigh muscles release their grip and the legs feel both free and stable, with the weight moving straight into the floor via the feet. 

 

I moved up towards the hips as she instructed, tilting the pelvis on top of the legs and observing.

I noticed just how connected the movements of my knees, hips, and back are:

 

  • When I tilt the pelvis to lift weight off of it, there's a resultant effort felt in my lower back and the core muscles - they begin to grip.
  • If I bend the knees first, I can find freedom in the lower back and abdomen. If I then bring the knees into balance while remaining free in the back and abs, I can then find movement at the hip joints without adding back/core tension.

 

 

The Result

 

As I began to play, I noticed that this felt different than normal:

 

From here, the torso was finally balanced on top of the pelvis and delivering weight through the legs effectively. 

 

I normally have more effort and holding in my torso when I'm not balancing the pelvis on the legs like this!

 

Enjoying the ease of the back, I could effectively let the shoulder blades remain wide and free, and I felt a wonderful ease and length for the arms as I continued to play. 

 

Breathing became easy and not forced, and I could feel that my abdominal muscles weren't engaging with the breath as they often do!

 

Free, wide back. soft front.


Connecting the Back to the Whole

    he latissimus dorsi connects at:

    • Spinous processes of T7 – L5 vertebrae.
    • Iliac crest of sacrum.
    • Inferior angle of the scapula.
    • Lower three or four ribs.

    The first 60 seconds of this video demonstrate an important connection between the back and the arms. He points out how large the latissimus dorsi is, and part of its functioning in moving the arms. Its connections to the spine and lower ribs mean it's involved in our breathing movements, too!

     

      The latissimus dorsi:

      • Adducts the arm at the shoulder (glenohumeral) joint.
      • Medially rotates the arm at the shoulder (glenohumeral) joint.
      • Extends the arm at the shoulder (glenohumeral) joint.

      Life in the Legs

       

      Finding Power via the Legs: Soft Front, Strong Back (of the legs)

       

      After all of this, I was playing with more awareness on my back than on the front of my body. I normally direct a lot of focus on the front of the body, always watching the abdominal muscles to see if they're gripping, because I know I want them to stay free to breathe and resonate well.

      With my awareness on the back, the front just remained natural without having to tell it to. (!!)

       

      I went back to the idea about "Life in the Legs."

       

      I know that effortless projection comes from ease and coordination of the whole self, depending on the ability to feel supported by space and the floor below.

       

      Having the knees and pelvis aligned well, I noticed a different presence for the back of my legs while playing. (Normally, I don't notice the back of my legs at all, especially if my knees aren't in balance - they're just not a part of my awareness while playing!)

       

      I imagined a sense of power and projection stemming from the support of my legs while playing.

       

      This instruction led me to a full, embodied sound that was projecting from below and behind me into space. I felt free and effortlessly powerful. No forcing anywhere. Front remained soft. (!!!)


        "Strong Back, Soft Front, Wild Heart" -  Braving the Wilderness  by Brené Brown

      "Strong Back, Soft Front, Wild Heart" - Braving the Wilderness by Brené Brown

      The Takeaway

       

      Awareness of the back led me to the feeling of being supported by the space behind me - I was no longer forcing or squeezing in the abdomen or shrinking into a smaller space. I was projecting with easy via soft front, wide back, supported legs.

       

      We don't project with ease by becoming smaller, we soften into space: Occupy all of your space!

       


      Intentions

      "Wide Back"

      "Weight off of pelvis"

      "Arms lighten and lengthen from the lower back"

      "Elastic knees, supported by the back of the legs"

       

      Sources:

      Get Body Smart: Attachments & Actions of the Latissimus Dorsi

      AnatomyZone: Back Muscles in a Nutshell



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      Inspiration for Sound, Presence + Repertoire: YouTube Playlists for Flutists

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      A while back, I shared my favorite recordings for listening inspiration. Today, I wanted to share my favorite YouTube videos!

       

      (Click here to open that in another tab for after this post!)

       

      I'm often referring my students to listening inspiration on YouTube, so I've created several public playlists on my channel to share and constantly update with my own personal favorites.


      The benefit of videos is that we have a chance to observe and absorb the physical presence of some of our favorite artists.

      • Are they grounded and easy?
      • How do they interact with their collaborators or the audience?
      • How do they bow and enter and exit the stage?

       

      While most of these artists have exceptional poise, I have a separate playlist dedicated to a few examples of refined poise, effortlessness, and commanding or captivating stage presence.

       

      These examples may have higher quality video or angles that showcase the artist as they play, so we can observe things like eye contact with the audience, interactions with collaborators, elegant movements and effortless breathing, remaining grounded while floating up and out into the space... and so forth.


       

      Try On Inspiration

       

      As I mentioned in my favorite recordings post, we can try on a sound and find new possibilities when we listen to high quality recordings.

       

      We can do the same thing with videos - try on a presence, movement pattern, or stance.

      What is it like?


      YouTube Playlists

       

      Click the image or button below to head on over to my YouTube Channel to find my created playlists, or go directly to each playlist via the links below! 

       

      I'll be continuously updating and adding to these lists, and would love to hear some of your favorites or suggestions in the comments below!



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      Top Tips For Improving Articulation [Video]

      Scale Game Tracker [Free Download]

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      I love the Scale Game.

       

      If you're unfamiliar with The Scale Game, it is a list of sixty articulation/rhythm/tempo variations to accompany Taffanel and Gaubert's Exercises Journaliers, No. 4 by Michel Debost. It can be found in his book, The Simple Flute.  

       

      The idea is to play all keys in T&G Number 4 each day, (including six 8va scales), rotating to ultimately play all keys in all styles at the end of a full 30 or 60-day rotation.


        via Flute Talk

      via Flute Talk


      There are a couple ways to do it.


      Rotating Keys

      To Begin:

      1. Play C Major in the style of No. 1
      2. Play C Major 8va in the style of No. 2
      3. Play A minor in the style of No. 3... and so on.
      • Once you've played the last scale in the left column (E minor) in the style of No. 30, begin with C Major again on style No. 31, going through 31-60 following the order on the left. (Stop at Style 30 if you're playing 30 scales per day, or go on and play all 60 in one day!)
      • After completing C Major through E Minor on Styles 1-30, and then again on 31-60, you'll re-start on the next day with C Major 8va (the second key on the left) in the style of No. 1, going down the list again.

      Rotating Styles

      Rather than playing the articulations in the same order and rotating through the keys as above, you can keep the keys in the same order and rotate the articulations. 

      • Follow the same steps as the above to begin.
      • Once you finish all sixty styles (playing all 30 keys 2x each), begin again on C Major the following day, beginning on Style. No. 2.
        • C Major 8va on Style 3
        • A minor on Style 4... and so on.

      Keeping Track + Staying Motivated

      One of my biggest issues with attempting to rotate through the full Scale Game over 60 days is keeping track of where I am. I have yet to successfully complete a full rotation, because at some point, despite writing down notes, I get lost and start over. 

       

      To remedy this, I've created a Scale Game Tracker to list out the full 60-Day rotation (following the Rotating Styles method), so I can simply check off each day without having to question where I'll need to start.

       

      Plus, it's motivating to keep track in one place, seeing a clear visual of my progress!


      Free Scale Game Tracker Download



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      How I Discovered + Released Tongue Tension for Effortless, Clear Articulation 

      flutearticulation

      While experimenting with articulation yesterday, I had a moment where I thought to notice how much effort my tongue was exerting. 

      I played a few notes, removed the flute from my face, and looked in the mirror.

      I was pulling my jaw down too forcefully, which was pulling my bottom lip back, and my tongue was being pulled up and back within my mouth.


      I know that letting the tongue lie low in the mouth helps resonance, and I also know that clear, short articulation is possible with the tongue forward in the mouth.

       

      My good intentions of creating space within the mouth - dropping the jaw - actually led me to increase tension and compromise space.

      My tongue felt tight and heavy as well, but what was most surprising was how much I wanted to pull the tongue up and back!

       

      This might not happen as drastically for everyone, as I may habitually try to bring to my tongue down when I bring the jaw down. When I do both of these things in a forceful way, I end up in a place that feels tight and difficult. 

       

      I decided to have a look at how and why my tongue moves the way it does, and uncovered some important relationships between the tongue and jaw.


      How Does The Tongue Move?

      Take a look at how many muscles move the tongue in all directions. 

      In simple terms, there are four extrinsic tongue muscles that move the tongue and connect outside the tongue, and four intrinsic tongue muscles located within the tongue that allow us to change the the shape of the tongue. 

       

      The extrinsic muscles that move the tongue:

      • The styloglossus muscle retracts and elevates the tongue.

      • The palatoglossus muscle raises the back of the tongue and lowers the soft palate - required movement for swallowing. 

      • The genioglossus muscle lowers the tongue and brings it forward in the mouth.

      • The hyoglossus lowers the tongue and brings it back in the mouth.

      (For a quick chart and simple visual of these muslces, click here! It's enlightening to know just where they are and what they do!)

      Understanding that there's a muscle that's both pulling my tongue up and retracting it back gives me some insights about what I was noticing.

      Gaining clarity about the relationships between the tongue muscles and their origins, insertions, and functions gave me direction in deciding how to use myself in a different way for different results.


      Experiment + Observe Tongue Movement

      Try pulling your jaw down far but keeping your lips together, actively aiming to create space inside the mouth:

      • Where is the tongue inside your mouth?
      • Watch the back of the tongue - does it become tense? Is it raised?
      • Does the tip of the tongue move backward?  
      • What happens to the bottom lip? How does this position affect embouchure?

      Allow the jaw to become neutral and soft, simply hanging rather than pulling down:

      • What happens to the tongue? 
      • Where is the tip of the tongue naturally lying?
      • How does the back of the tongue feel?
      • What about the soft palate?
      • What happens to the lower lip?

       

      Discovery

      When I re-set and let my jaw release back up towards neutral, I immediately felt my tongue release down and forward toward the teeth.

      Where I was before, I had to actively bring my tongue towards the teeth to get a short articulation. The tongue was heavy and effortful in this movement.

      Because I was holding it in a pulled back and up position within my mouth, it was naturally wanting to hit the roof of the mouth further back, where we create a "D" syllable, rather than a "T" syllable at the alveolar ridge. (Where the upper teeth meet the hard palate.) This might be good for a legato articulation, but for short, light, and quick, it wasn't effortless.

      From a neutral jaw and a naturally relaxed and forward tongue, I didn't have to exert so much effort in bringing my tongue forward, it was already there. My tongue and articulations could more easily become short, light and quick. Beyond that, my lower lip was more available, allowing me greater freedom to angle well.

       



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      What I Learned (+ Changed) About My Relationship With Self-Trust From a Golf Book

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      Back in my most recent audition preparation experience, I bought a book called: Golf is Not a Game of Perfect by Dr. Bob Rotella. I first heard about it in Rob Knopper's interview with Matt Howard on his strategies to win his audition with the LA Phil, where he discussed his elevated mental strategies and focus on his pre-shot routine. 

       

      I recently picked it up again and started over from the beginning. 

       

      Dr. Rotella is a performance consultant who specifically works with pro golfers on the mental side of their game.

      There are some general, common sense ideas in there, and Dr. Rotella even attests that his simple methods often surprise his clients. 

      The thing about reading and processing these concepts again and again is that every time, a new light bulb goes off. I can digest it in a new way that allows me to really become aware of my mindset and try something new.


      My Relationship with Trust: Doubt Comes First

       

      "Many weekend golfers don't even wait for a bad shot to stop trusting their swing. They step onto the first tee thinking of a dozen mechanical concepts...Without realizing it, they're doing everything possible to undermine their own game." (pg. 48)

       

      "The hot streak represents the golfer's true capability. It results, essentially, from trust. The golfer trusts his abilities. He steps up to the ball knowing that he can pick a target and hit it there. He does things unconsciously. The swing repeats itself. It feels effortless." (pg. 49)


      I initially realized how often I direct the mechanics of my own playing thinking about my recent recordings for Etude of the Week.

       

      I always think about the "what-I'm-doing" portion in practice. Of course, it's important to observe oneself and make corrections. 

       

      I also know that thinking about what to do hinders a performance, but I have continuously obsessed over self-directing while recording my etudes due to fear of failure:

      I want to create the best possible outcome, so I hang onto all the little instructions that steered me well in practice.

       

      Ultimately, this becomes exhausting.

       

      My intentions are always to let go and direct myself to freedom, but I often end up adding tension when it comes to performing or recording. I physically feel the weight of it.

       

      Self-directing is a form of self-doubt.

       

      I am not exercising trust.


      TRUST IS A HABIT. (And So Is Doubt.)

       

      Great golf players trust themselves. They put in highly effective practice, and then let go and trust on game day. They trust no matter what happens - they keep locking in on their targets, and going for them.

       

      Thinking about the amount of time I spend over-thinking, especially in practice, I recognize that my habit is doubt:

       

      On a deeper level with how I think and act, I am doubting that I can create a beautiful sound without telling myself all the steps first.

       

      I spend so little time cultivating trust with my mindset during practice and in life, that it's almost impossible to fully access trust in a performance. Starting to think about cultivating trust comes way too late in the process for me.


      Embodying Trust as a Habit

       

      After this revelation, I recorded my Etude of the Week, and I dove in without overthinking.

       

      I didn't analyze myself first. I didn't double check how to play all the low notes, or the short notes, or the trills.. I gave myself permission to trust and not direct anything.

       

      Not only was it more fun to play, it went better than I expected.

       

      My only goals were to think in terms of targets:

      I imagined myself hitting them, and then I did. 

       

      More importantly, I didn't spend an hour recording take after take, physically exhausting myself. I felt light and free without instructing myself to feel light and free.

       

      I carried this into my fundamentals practice, where I am almost 100% of the time living in careful instruction mode. My default this time was to choose to trust and live affirmatively in the moment, and if anything went wrong, I could go back and fix it. 

       

      Trust first, not doubt: Play affirmatively, not with a question mark.

       

      This eased an enormous amount of the frustrations I felt earlier that day. This also made it possible to have a pretty successful sight-reading session, as well! 


      Here are my reflections for the week:

       

      • Do I play, practice, and think with a question mark of doubt over my head?

       

      • What happens if I stop waiting to ingrain trust?

       

      • What happens if I decide I'm worthy of trust right from the beginning?

       

      • What happens if I embody trust as a habit, as my default?


      What is your relationship with trust like? Do you notice when you're trusting vs. doubting? What is your default? Do you cultivate trust every day?



       

       

       

      Are You Mentally Practicing Mistakes? Finding Awareness in Mental Practice

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      Earlier this week while teaching two separate students, we came across some difficult technical passages. While playing, there were a couple slip-ups.

      Before going any further, I asked each of them to mentally read through the passage and absorb all the notes - no moving fingers, just reading.

      I did it, too.

       

      What did I notice?

       

      I was reading it fairly quickly and made mistakes and stumbled in my own head

       

      So I asked: "Did your mental run-through involve mistakes?"

       

      They responded: "Yes!!"

       

      "Isn't that interesting!?"


      This really struck me as an opportunity to investigate and gain some clarity for myself and my students.

       

      Mistakes and stumbles aren't necessarily directly caused by fingers slipping up.

      The fingers slip up because the eyes haven't looked long and closely enough to allow the brain to process the notes that are there, meaning the correct message hasn't been delivered to the fingers.

       

      Why did we stumble?

      When reading through the difficult pattern quickly, we didn't have time to stop and process every note visually. We only saw some of the notes, so we had to anticipate what note was next.

      The fingers took over from patterns we've already learned and muscle-memorized. We then realized the note we wanted to play wasn't the note that was actually written, so we stumbled.

       

      Why do we go slower?

      To better process, of course! 

      It's hard to go fast with confidence until we know it well! Aim to deeply know and understand what's written before trying to play it. 

      For example, in order to recite the lyrics to One Week by Barenaked Ladies at full speed, you have to know all the words first, and you'll probably need to spend a good amount of time reading and studying the actual words before you're ready to impress your friends in the car!

       

      So, What Did We Discover?

      Taking finger movement out of the picture to simply read and process was a simple and powerful means of absorbing the notes.

      If we really took the time to process first, we had an easier time playing. 

      Beyond simply playing the correct notes, the subsequent times were also accompanied by a deep sense of confidence and clarity in phrasing.


      These realizations really got me thinking - am I really utilizing mental practice in a powerful, mindful way every time I practice? 

      Do I really take the time to process without playing often enough?


      Awareness questions for mental practice:

      • Does my mental read-through contain the same mistakes as when I play?
      • Do I mentally practice at a tempo slow enough to process and absorb all the notes and patterns?
      • What notes do I see?
      • What notes do I not see or process as easily?
      • Does my mental practice seek out an understanding of patterns to assist with processing and an understanding of structure?
      • Do my practice sessions involve reading the music without my instrument, or do I always play?
      • If I do mentally read through the notes without playing, do I move my fingers silently?
      • What is it like to only read and hear the phrase in my head?
      • Is it the same or different when I begin to move my fingers silently? Do I hear the phrase in the same way? 
      • Am I ingraining confidence in my mental practice?
      • Does my body remain easy and effortless while thinking through the notes?
      • Do I imagine a beautiful sound in my mental practice?
      • Is it slow enough to consider all of these things?


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      The Priorities of Good Sound for Flute & Piccolo [+ Free Download]

       

      Several band directors have recently asked for my thoughts regarding flute embouchure:

      • What should the embouchure look like?
      • How would I help a student with a tight embouchure?
      • How do I help students develop sound?

       

      My answer:

       

      Most often, attempting to fix an embouchure is like fixing only the surface-level symptom of a deeper problem.

       

      Many students (including my younger self) put a lot of focus on the embouchure because it's the one thing we can see clearly, and our band directors can see, too.

       

      I didn't come to understand and refine the fundamental aspects of sound until I came to understand the anatomy involved in playing.

       

      When all three aspects are refined and prioritized, sound becomes full and resonant, and students can begin to gain control and flexibility.


      1. Airstream

      Airstream is at the base of the pyramid because of course, without air, there's no sound. The most important element of this foundation is the understanding that:

      • An exhale creates sound,
      • Our inhale determines our exhale,
      • Our self-use a whole determines the quality of the breath, and therefore the quality of the sound. 
        • To experience the difference, stand on your tip-toes and take a big breath. Then, stand on both feet and take a big breath.
        • Which is more comfortable? Is there a difference in how each feels between these two different ways of using yourself?
        • There are subtle habits of use embedded in our playing that can affect breathing in the same way.
        • Therefore, looking at the whole can improve breathing, and thereby, sound.

       

      Posts to Refine Breathing + Self-Use

       

      Resources for Refining Breathing Anatomy


      2. Internal Set-Up: Jaw, Tongue, Mouth

      So, we've mentioned embouchure and airstream, but the structures between the lungs and the lips play a crucial role in developing sound, as well. As before, understanding the anatomy of these structures can lead to a more refined and effective means of use.

      Statements like "open the throat" or "drop the jaw" are well-meaning tips to help students create openness and fullness to the sound. If the foundation of breathing or anatomical knowledge isn't there, attempting to open the throat may turn into forcing and lead to throat tension or noise.

       

      Refine Your Knowledge

      Have a look at this video.

      Although it's about swallowing, in the first 60 seconds, the narrator points out just how large the tongue is, and that the base of the tongue is in the oral pharynx.

      She'll also point out the hard palate and soft palates.

       

      • The tongue is the floor of our mouth, and the palates are the ceiling.
      • Increasing the amount of space in the mouth creates resonance.
      • Therefore, tongue down, soft palate lifted will increase the space in the oral cavity.

       

      • Understand that the tongue is large and dome shaped, and the base of which sits in the jaw and the oral pharynx. Therefore, the jaw and the tongue are closely related.
      • If "dropping the jaw" leads to pulling or forcing the jaw down, the freedom of the tongue is affected. (Jaw tension is a culprit of poor articulation and tongue speed, as well!)
      • The back or base of the tongue, as seen above, is essentially the front of the beginning of what we might consider to be the throat. Therefore, the tongue heavily influences our airsteam, and how "open" or "restricted" it is.
      • We use these structures to ensure airflow hasn't been restricted, and to create vowel shapes that add depth to the sound. 

       

      Where's My Jaw in Relation to the Whole?

       

      How to Practice?

      • Singing and playing is my favorite way to practice both airstream support and set-up:
        • Singing adds speed and volume to the air stream, allows the mouth to create vowel shapes, and allows "open the throat" to occur in a natural way. Intentionally creating sound by singing can help alleviate throat tension and throat noise.

      3. Embouchure

      Embouchure comes last because this is point at which we add structure and finesse to the airstream. When the fundamental elements are adequate and refined, the embouchure can begin to let go. A smiling, or tight embouchure with corners pulled back is a compensation for inadequate air, a closed throat or both.

      Uncovering the bottom lip and allowing the corners to mush forward towards the lip plate is now possible when air and space are adequate. From here, flexibility and seamless intervals are possible. (Insert your favorite flexibility exercises and etudes here!)

       

      Here's one more video to see the muscles that move the mouth and the lips.

      The muscles below the the lower lip are important - often, the flute is too high on the bottom lip, and we can't use the lower lip for finesse and structure.

      If we try to lower the flute on the lip without the foundations of the pyramid, students won't have the tools ready to begin supporting well, and they'll lose sound, which is a scary experience! One more reason to look at the whole to make effective changes to the embouchure.

       

      Adequate support will also allow students to begin rolling out or uncovering more of the lip plate.

       

      In addition, the angle of the embouchure and flute-to-face are also the final elements to refining sound.

       

      Here are three experiments for making adjustments and finding the right angle!


      Free Download!

      Here's a free visual aid with some important reminders to use for yourself or for your students! Click the image or the button below to download a PDF.



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      Spring Practice Favorites: Books + Apps

      I'm always on the lookout for new resources to make my life easier and more inspired while practicing. Recently, I've been loving a few brand new and some new-to-me resources.

       

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      Books


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      The Virtuosic Flutist

      by Nina Assimakopoulos

       

      Right when I saw the first sample of this book, I knew I'd love it! This book thoroughly explains how to practice and develop important expressive tools, and has inspired me to think in more dimensions with an elevated focus with everything else I'm practicing. I especially love the Grounding and Repertoire sections!

      Available in Print and Digital Download!

       



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      The 28 Day Warm Up Book for All Flautists.... eventually!

      by Paul Edmund-Davies

      If you're trying to get yourself back into shape, this is the book to do it! There are four sections, Sonority, Fingers, Articulation, and Intervals with 7 exercises in each. There's a chart at the beginning of the book showing how to divide each section over 28 days. I've been loving this book to challenge myself beyond the typical tone and technique exercises, and it's paying off!

      Learn More Here!


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      Indirect Procedures: A Musician's Guide to the Alexander Technique

      by Pedro De Alcantara

       

      This in-depth book gave me a lot of ideas in the first few pages alone. If you're learning to apply to Alexander Technique to your playing, this book will help you develop a deeper understanding of your thoughts and self-use as a musician.

       

      See More on Amazon!


      APPS


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      Seconds Pro Interval Timer

      This app was introduced to me by two musicians on Instagram, and it's designed to assist with Interval workouts. If you read my "How I Practice Using the Pomodoro Technique" post, you'll know I love using a timer and dividing up my practice session into 25-minute chunks. This app lets me customize each task and duration, and will count down and lead me right into the next task. It's much easier to let go of each task and move right along into the next without dwelling or wasting time. If you need help focusing and getting through a number of tasks, give this one a try!

      Apple App Store


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      Drone Tuner

      This genius app lets you tune to the sound of real instruments! I love using a drone to work on intonation, but sometimes it's difficult to blend into the only sound offered by other apps. I like to rotate through several instruments and pitches to prepare to play in tune with a variety of instruments and ranges. (The piano option is helpful to prepare students to tune to a piano!) Plus, you can tune chords and harmonies!

       

      Learn More Here!



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